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The Five Freedoms of animal welfare

  1. Freedom from hunger and thirst: by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor.

  2. Freedom from discomfort: by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area.

  3. Freedom from pain, injury, or disease: by prevention through rapid diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Freedom to express normal behavior: by providing sufficient space, proper facilities, and the company of the animal’s own kind.

  5. Freedom from fear and distress: by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering.

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